Tagged active particle: probability distribution in a slowly varying external potential is determined by effective temperature obtained from the Einstein relation
Published 2021-02-22Version 1
We derive a distribution function for the position of a tagged active particle in a slowly varying in space external potential, in a system of interacting active particles. The tagged particle distribution has the form of the Boltzmann distribution but with an effective temperature that replaces the temperature of the heat bath. We show that the effective temperature that enters the tagged particle distribution is the same as the effective temperature defined through the Einstein relation, i.e. it is equal to the ratio of the self-diffusion and tagged particle mobility coefficients. This shows that this effective temperature, which is defined through a fluctuation-dissipation ratio, is relevant beyond the linear response regime. We verify our theoretical findings through computer simulations. Our theory fails when an additional large length scale appears in our active system. This length scale is associated with long-wavelength density fluctuations that emerge upon approaching motility-induced phase separation.