An in-situ synchrotron diffraction study of stress relaxation in titanium: Effect of temperature and oxygen on cold dwell fatigue
Published 2020-11-19Version 1
There is a long-standing technological problem in which a stress dwell during cyclic loading at room temperature in Ti causes a significant fatigue life reduction. It is thought that localised time dependent plasticity in soft grains favourably oriented for easy plastic slip leads to load shedding and an increase in stress within a neighbouring hard grain poorly oriented for easy slip. Quantifying this time dependent plasticity process is key to understand the complex cold dwell fatigue problem. Knowing the effect of operating temperature and oxygen content on cold dwell fatigue will be beneficial for future alloy design to address this problem. In this work, synchrotron X-ray diffraction during stress relaxation experiments was used to characterise the time dependent plastic behaviour of two commercially pure titanium samples (grade 1 and grade 4) with different oxygen content at 4 different temperatures (room temperature, 75C, 145C and 250C). Lattice strains were measured by tracking the diffraction peak shift from multiple crystallographic plane families (21 diffraction rings) as a function of their orientation with respect to the loading direction. Critical resolved shear stress, activation energy and activation volume were established for both prismatic and basal slip as a function of temperature and oxygen content by fitting a crystal plasticity finite element model to the lattice strain relaxation responses measured along the loading axis for five strong reflections. Higher strain rate sensitivity was found to lead to higher plasticity during cold dwell.