Dynamics of racial segregation and gentrification in New York City
Published 2019-04-15Version 1
Racial residential segregation is interconnected with several other phenomena such as income inequalities, property values inequalities, and racial disparities in health and in education. Furthermore, recent literature suggests the phenomena of gentrification as a cause of perpetuation or increase of racial residential segregation in some American cities. In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of racial residential segregation for white, black, Asian, and Hispanic citizens in New York City in the years of 1990, 2000, and 2010. It was possible to observe that segregation between white and Hispanic citizens, and discrimination between white and Asian ones has grown, while segregation between white and black is quite stable. Furthermore, we analyzed the per capita income and the Gini coefficient in each segregated zone, showing that the highest inequalities occur in the zones where there is overlap of high-density zones of pair of races. Focusing on census tracts that have changed density of population during these twenty years, and, particularly, by analyzing white and black people's segregation, our analysis reveals that a positive flux of white (black) people is associated to a substantial increase (decrease) of the property values, as compared with the city mean. Furthermore, by clustering the region of high density of black citizens, we measured the variation of area and displacement of the four biggest clusters in the period from 1990 to 2010. The large displacements (~ 1.6 Km) observed for two of these clusters, namely, one in the neighborhood of Harlem and the other inside the borough of Brooklyn, led to the emergence of typically gentrified regions.