### arXiv:1805.06443 [cond-mat.quant-gas]AbstractReferencesReviewsResources

#### Many-body multi-valuedness of particle-current variance in closed and open cold-atom systems

Mekena Metcalf, Chen-Yen Lai, Massimiliano Di Ventra, Chih-Chun Chien

Published 2018-05-16Version 1

The quantum variance of an observable is a fundamental quantity in quantum mechanics, and the variance provides additional information other than the average itself. By examining the relation between the particle-current variance $(\delta J)^2$ and the average current $J$ in both closed and open interacting fermionic systems, we show the emergence of a multi-valued Lissajous curve between $\delta J$ and $J$ due to interactions. As a closed system we considered the persistent current in a benzene-like lattice enclosing an effective magnetic flux and solved it by exact diagonalization. For the open system, the steady-state current flowing through a few lattice sites coupled to two particle reservoirs was investigated using a Lindblad equation. In both cases, interactions open a loop and change the topology of the corresponding $\delta J$-$J$ Lissajous curve, showing that this effect is model-independent. We finally discuss how the predicted phenomena can be observed in ultracold atoms, thus offering an alternative way of probing the dynamics of many-body systems.

**Comments:**Main text: 5 pages, 3 figures. Supplemental information: 5 pages, 9 figures