Noncommutative Catalan numbers
Published 2017-08-10Version 1
The goal of this paper is to introduce and study noncommutative Catalan numbers $C_n$ which belong to the free Laurent polynomial algebra in $n$ generators. Our noncommutative numbers admit interesting (commutative and noncommutative) specializations, one of them related to Garsia-Haiman $(q,t)$-versions, another -- to solving noncommutative quadratic equations. We also establish total positivity of the corresponding (noncommutative) Hankel matrices $H_n$ and introduce accompanying noncommutative binomial coefficients.