Weak composition quasi-symmetric functions, Rota-Baxter algebras and Hopf algebras
Published 2017-02-26Version 1
We introduce the Hopf algebra of quasi-symmetric functions with semigroup exponents generalizing the Hopf algebra QSym of quasi-symmetric functions. As a special case we obtain the Hopf algebra WCQSym of weak composition quasi-symmetric functions, which provides a framework for the study of a question proposed by G.-C.~Rota relating symmetric type functions and Rota-Baxter algebras. We provide the transformation formulas between the weak composition monomial and fundamental quasi-symmetric functions, which extends the corresponding results for quasi-symmetric functions. Moreover, we show that QSym is a Hopf subalgebra and a Hopf quotient algebra of WCQSym. Rota's question is addressed by identifying WCQsym with the free commutative unitary Rota-Baxter algebra of weight 1 on one generator, which also allows us to equip this algebra with a Hopf algebra structure.